■ I ■;\ t >.: ■
District Clerk's Office.
luVth year of the Independence of the United States of
I the right whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words
I -i t;; ifyr,)£*i in to e'fW r£t ^\xtut.'■ , Mark xiv. 26.
Iment of Learning, by securing the Copies of Maps, Charts
l?o to an Act entitled, " An act supplementary to an Act r
I to the Authors and Proprietors of such copies during the
Riling Historical and other Pr' u."
I W. DAVIS,
r rid of .VassachutttU.
L ction of Sacred .Music.
BOSTOX, October 31, 1816.
" Songs of the Temple, or Bridcewater Collec-
examination of its pages. For beauty of style r
le of which they have any knowledge,
the Pullisbers for its handsome execution. The
much respect, your obedient servant.
M. S. PARKER, Secretary.
i Ssq. president of the Handel and Haydn Society, New -York, to the Publishers
—ated N?w-York, August %1, 1819.
HAVING lately examined a Collec
Collection of Sacred Music," I avail myself of th
lished in the United States ; and I should be glad t
interesting part of Christian Worship.
on of Sacred Music published by you, entitled " Songs of the Temple, or Bridgewater
means of saying, I consider this Collection as being by far the best I have met with pub-
find it generally used in our Churches, as a means of fosiering an improved taste for ibis
/ am, respectfully, your humble servant,
THE public opinion in favour of former edjions of this work, has'been so fully expressed, by the sale they have met with, that the
Proprietors now have it in their power to offer thepublic the present enlarged and improved edition. They flatter themselves, that it contains
a larger collection of approved church or congregjtional Music, than can be found in any one book extant. Besides a very competent number
of short tunes, in all the variety of measures forasual Sunday service, there is added a selection of Anthems and longer Hymn Tunes, for
particular occasions. This will render it more siitable and convenient for the practice and improvement of common schools and church
choirs. A considerable proportion of the music las never before been published in this country, and will therefore have all the effect of
original compositions. The Proprietors and Comnlers have omitted no pains or exertions in their power, to render the work as perfect in
all respects, as the nature of the subject will admt.
A few variations in the harmony have been nade in the present edition ; but if the learned musician should still find many deviations
from the strict principles of modern harmony, h^ must attribute it principally to a reluctance on the part of the Compilers to change tunes
from the form in which they have long been presented to the public. More complaints are made of the frequent changing of the harmony,
than of its incorrectness. There may be found isome errors of the press, which, however, the eye of a master will readily discover, and
which can easily be corrected with the pen. Perfect typography in a work like this is not to be expected, and is indeed impossible. It is
hoped, however, and believed, that errors of thil kind are few and not very material.
Figuring has been added in this edition, which it is hoped may be of some use to the organist ; and as utility has been a leading object,
the character of the mu6ic, it is believed, will bq found suited to every sober, sacred, and religious purpose, and adapted to the use of public
worship, among all societies and denominations cf Christians,
A DICTIONARY OF MUSICAL CHARACTERS.
ADAGIO, (or Ado.) slow.
Afftttuoso, or Con Affttto, tenderly.
Alia Brtre, an Italian terra for church music of four
minims in a bar, to be performed quick ; it is usual
however at the present day, to insert a bar after
every semibreve or two minims, and the movement
is denoted by a bar drawn through the Adagio
Alltgretto, a little brisk.
AUtjro, (or Alio.) brisk.
Alltgro ma non troppo, brisk, but not too fast.
Alio, or Altvu, the contra Tenor.
Andante, a little slow, or by gentle steps, as in walk-
Andantinja, a light sort of andante.
Amoroso, see Affettuoso.
Anthem, a portion of Scripture set to music.
Bis, signifies a repeat.
Canon, a regukr and exact fugue, in either the uni-
son, fifth, or eiehth. In these pieces one singer
begins alone, and when he comes either to the end
of his part, or to a repeat, If written on one staff,
-a second begins, and then a third in like manner,
and so of tLe rest.
Cadtncts, are closes in music, similar in effect, to
•tops in reading.
Canlo, or Canlus, the Treble.
Captlfo, a chapel or church, at Alia Capella, in
Canlabttc, in a graceful and melodious style ; an ex-
treme cadence made by the principal performer
i*hil< the Tf*i -top.
Chorus, full, all the voices.
Con, as Con Spirilo, with spirit.
Crescendo, (or Cres.) to swell the sound.
Con Lamenlo, in a melancholy style.
E, and, as Moderato e Mcestoso, moderate and mjes-
Da Capo, (or D. C.) to repeat and conclude ivith
the first strain.
Decani and Cantoris, the two sides of a choir
Diminuendo, to diminish the sound.
Dolce, sweet and soft.
Duo, Duetto, for two voices or instruments.
Del Stgno, (or D. S.) from the sign.
Fagotto, the Bassoon part.
Fine, the end of n piece or book.
ForJe, (or For.) loud.
Fortissimo, or F. F. very loud.
Fuga, or Fugue, a piece in which one or moi
lead, and the rest follow in regular interval)
Grazioso, gracefully, with taste.
Grave, the slowest time.
Larghetto, pretty slow.
Largo, Lentemente or Lento, very slow.
Ligature, a slur.
Mcrsloso, slow, firm, and bold.
Moletlo, a kind of Latin Anthem.
Mezzo, modrnitely, rather, as
Mezzo Forte, moderately loud.
Mezzo Piano, rather soft.
Organo, the Organ part.
Piano, (or Pia.) softt
Pianissimo, (or P. P.) very soft.
Piu, prefixed to another word, increases its force.
Poco, the contrary of Piu.
Prestissimo, very quick.
Prima, the first part.
Pomposo, in a grand or pompous style.
Rrrilalive, kind of musical recitation, between speak-
g and singing.
irnello, see symphony.
mdo, the second part.
A Chorus, half the voices.
liano, a slow, graceful movement in Compound
», for a single voice or instrument.
rano, the Treble.
rituoso, or Con Spirito, with spirit.
:cato, very distinct and pointed.
'o Voce, middling strength of voice.
aphony, a passage for instruments.
npo, time ; as, A Tempo, or Tempo Giusto, in
o, a piece in three parts.
npo di Marcia, martial time.
tti, when all join after a solo.
orough Base, the instrumental Base, with figure?
or the Organ.
■se, one voice to a part.
ace, with life and spirit.
Iti Subito, turn over quick.
NOTES, RESTS AND OTHER MUSICAL CHARACTERS EXPLAINED.
1 Semibreve, 2 Minims, 4 Crotchets, 8 Quavers, 16 Semiquavers, 32Demisemi.
1 Flat. 2 Sharp
H T T
3 Natural. 4 Dot.
7 Repeat. 8 Choice Notes
9 Figure 3.
12 Bar. 13 Double Bar. 14 Syncopation. 15 Stoccato Marks. 16 Brace.
1. A Flat, set before a note, sinks it half a tone.
2. A Sharp, set before a note, raises it half a tone.
3. A Natural, restores a note made flat or sharp to its original
4. A Dot, after a note, adds to it one half of its original length.
5. A Slur is drawn over or under those notes which are sung to
6. The Hold shews that the sound of the note over which it is
placed may be continued longer than its usual length.
7. The Repeat shews what part of a tune is to be sung twice,
and is placed at the beginning and end of the strain to be repeated. -
8. Choice Notes give the performer liberty to sing which he
9. The Figure 3, over or under three notes, directs that" they be
performed in the time of two of the same kind. '* •
10. The Trill, shews that the note over which it is placed" should .
be shaken. . ' .
11. The Appogiaturas are small notes, which divide the time of
the principal note, unless it be followed by a point or rest, and then
they take the whole time of the principal note, and that takfcs the;
time of the point or rest only.
12. A. Bar divides the tune into equal parts, according to its mea- -
sure note. "
13. Double Bars shew the end of a strain.
1 4. Syncopation, or Driving Note, is when a note begins on file
weak and ends on the strong part of the measure.
15. Notes having Stoccato Marks, should be performed distinctly;
and when dots are used instead of marks, the performance should be
soft and distinct.
16. The Brace connects those parts of a tune which move to-
RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC
MUSIC is written on th e parallel lines, and their four interme-
diate spaces, and are called a Staff, making nine Degrees or places for
the heads of the notes, which are counted upwards. When more de-
grees are necessary, the spaces ahove and below the staff, and also
short or Leger lines are used, and thus the number of degrees may
be increased at pleasure.
v i»t — e
_Zj p © 3 ^ ^ - I_^b I
12 3 4
There are but seven original sounds, called the Scale, which may
be repeated upwards or downwards at pleasure, but every series will
be the same as the first, differing only in the pitch, being one eighth
more acute or grave, that is, higher or lower. To these sounds the
seven first letters of the Alphabet are applied, and also certain sylla-
bles, instead of words, to aid the learner in singing them. There is
also prefixed to each Staff a certain character called a Clef, which
represents one of the letters of the scale and its corresponding sound,
and thai shein the application of the scale to the staff. There are
'••it tiro Cfefil nacd in thii vrork ; which are the F and G Clefs. The
F Clef is confined to the Base ; and is placed on the fourth line. The
G Clef is used in all the upper parts, and is placed on the second
line. Another Clef, formed thus
called the C Clef, was
formerh/ used for the Counter and Tenor parts, and sometimes for
all the upper parts, and was moveable at pleasure to any line in the
staff; but this Clef is now very generally rejected as unnecessary. —
The Counter and Tenor parts are designed for male, and the Treble
for female voices. This being understood, different Clefs arc un-
RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.
2d Octave. 3d Octave.
BASE. ^ ^ ^ j£
C D E F G A B
fa sol la fa sol la mi
c d e f gab
fa sol la fa sol la mi
C D E F GAB
fa sol la fa sol la mi
c d e / g a b C&c.
fa sol Id fa sol la mi fa.
The second octave in the Base, and the first in the Counter and
Tenor are in unison ; and the third in the Base, the second in the
Counter and Tenor, and the first in the Treble, are also in unison ;
and should all the four octaves, and as many more as could be con-
ceived, be sounded at once, they would be in perfect concord. Al-
though the second line, being the Clef line, in both the upper parts,
is G ; yet it is to be observed, that the Treble is an octave higher
than the Counter and Tenor. The parts here are placed in their
natural order ; but the Treble, which is the Air or principal melody,
is generally written next to the Base, for the accommodation of or-
ganists ; it being most convenient for them, that the Air and Base
should stand together.
In applying syllables to the seven sounds, which is called Solfeggio,
or Sohnisation, nations differ. Thug English use
C. D. E. F. G. A. B.
fa. sol. la. fa. sol. la. mi.
The French use ut. re. mi. fa. sol. la. si.
The Italians use do. re. mi. fa. sol. la. si.
others have used da. me. ni. po. tu. Ia. be.
The sound of a in- fa and la is broad, and i in mi has ihe sound of
e. The scale consists of five tones and two half tones or semitones,
and when the five tones are divided by sharps or flats, it will consist
of twelve semitones.
DIVISION OF THE SCALE INTO SEMITONES.
Ascending by Sharps.
Descending by Flats.
c L * D K F F.* G G# A A# B C B B& A A& G G& F K E& D pfc T
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 H 12 (13) 12 34 56 7 8 9 10 11 12
Ascending by Flats.
Descending by Sharps.
l-ij j j j j »j .^^md ^k^ &uj j mi s
! P-^ E& F.£ F G& Afe B^.
B A* A$ G-# G-^ F* F$ E D# D-^ C#
In ascending by flats or descending by sharps it is necessary after
every flat or sharp, to insert a natural, otherwise the sharp or flat
would continue its effect, and the half tone would not be produced.
Two of these arc called natural semitones, as between E and F and
B aud C, and all the other ten are called artificial, as being changed
by sharps or flats from their nutund state. The natural semitones are
■onetuntea called diatonic, and the artificial ones chromatic, in refer-
ence to the ancient Grecian scales.
it may be proper to observe that any two of the five whole tones,
vpurated by an interval of one degree only, as from C to D— D to
E — F to G — G 'o A and A to \> will be brought together, to all prac-
tlcA purpose*, either w hen wag or struck on keyed instruments, if
the upper note of the interval be flatted and the lower one sharped ;
that is, C* and Db, for instance, are the same in sound, although
they stand on different degrees in the scale ; and so it is with the
When one octave is taken by itself, and the first note is repeated,
that is^ when it extends from C to C inclusive, and each is counted,
there will be" thirteen semitones or sounds, which has led some writer?
to say, that the scale consisted of thirteen semitones. This is incor-
rect, for there are but twelve distinct sounds, or intervals, and each
i of these may become a tonic, pitch, or key ; and there can be nd_
more to any practical purpose.
RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.
THE Scale may be theoretically divided into smaller intervals, called quarter tones, thus :—
C# Db D-^ D# E£ E#
F* G& G-^ G# A& A$ A* B& B-^- B#
This is altogether an imaginary division of the scale in modern
music, as the quarter tones cannot be struck on keyed instruments ;
and it arises from writing one and the same key as the sharp of the
key below, or as the flat of the key above, that is, making, for in-
stance, a theoretic difference of nearly a quarter tone between G* and
Ab, or C* and Db, which to all practical purposes are really the
same. — This is called, in reference to the Grecian scales, the Enhar-
monic, as that by semi-tones is called the Chromatic, division. These
names and distinctions, however, have but little use or applicability
in modern music.
r There are two modes in Music, the Major, and Minor. In the
Major mode the tonic or Key note is the first above mi, and proceeds
upwards with three full tones, as C D E in the above examples
fa. sol. la.
which gives a Major third, whence its name arises. In the Minor
mode the tonic, or Key note, is the first below mi, and proceeds
upwards with two tones and a semi-tone, making a Minor third, as
ABC (from B to C being a semi-tone,) whence also its name
la. mi. fa.
arises. In the Base of every tune a perfect close is in one or the
other of these tonics, which will determine the mode. If it be the
first above mi, that is, fa, it is in the Major ; if the first below mi,
that is, la, it is in the Minor mode. This is given as a rule for a
beginner, but the air of the tune will immediately discover the mode
to a proficient. In the Minor mode the sixth and seventh ascending
must be sharped, but not in descending ; thus,
, — HM> 2
— — <■
RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.
This peculiarity, or alteration of the 6th and 7th, from their nat-
ural state, is the occasion of its having been denominated by some an
artificial scale. The ancients had no knowledge of (they certainly
made no use of) the Major mode. The application of the letters,
which was fit-st made by them, shews at least that their scale was in
the Minor mode, and all their music was plaintive. The two sharps
in ascending was a later refinement.
It has already been stated that the Key, pitch, or tonic, may be
elevated or depressed by sharps and flats to any of the twelve semi-
tones in the scale. This may be done by fiats or sharps placed at the
beginning of the Tune on such lines or spaces as are necessary to
bring the tones and semi-tones into their relative and proper order,
required by the alteration intended. For to whatever space or line
in the stafl" the pitch ■ removed, the seven sounds must retain the
s.i me relative order, us in their natural state. These flats or sharps
at the beginning of the staff are called, the Signature ; when there
are none pLced there, it is a sign or Signature of the natural Key, and
mi is in 15 ; but
If B be Flat
ff B and E
Mi is in
Mi is in
U B, E and A (
JF B, E, A and D )
And having thus found Mi, the notes above are fa, sol, la, fa, sol,
U. and then comes Mi again — and below are la, sol, fa, la, sol, fa,
and then comes Mi again ; as the foregoing examples will shew.
If F be sharp
If F and C
If F, C and G
If F, C, G and D
Sometimes in the course of a tune the Key or tonic will be changed
by flats or sharps occasionally inserted and restored again by naturals.
These incidental sharps or flats, as also naturals, when they are in-
tended to remove the effects of sharps or flats in the Signature, are
always indicative of a change of Key, excepting when sharps or
naturals are used on the 6th and 7th of the Minor mode ; in which
case they are said to be the sign of that mode ; but incidental flat9
always produce a change of Key. All these incidental changes from
the Key established by the Signature are called Modulation.
The seven sounds have also distinct names from their situation and
effect in the scale. The Key note is called the Tonic, the next above,
or its second, the Supertonic, — its third, the Mediant, — its fourth,
the Subdominant, — its fifth, the Dominant, — its sixth, the Submediant,
— its seventh, the leading note.
Touic. Supertonic. Mediant. Subdominanl. Dominant. Subincdiant. Leading note.
The Tonic is so called from its being the principal Tone or pitch
of the tunc.
The Sujicrtonic is so called from its being the next note above the
The Mediant is so called from its being in the middle way between
the Tonic and Dominant.
RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.
The Subdominant is so called from its being- the fifth below the
Tonic, as the Dominant is the fifth above.
The Dominant is so called from its being a principal note, and re-
quires the Tonic generally to be heard after it, especially at a close,
and is therefore said to govern it.
The Submediant is so called from its being in the middle way be-
tween the tonic and its fifth below.
The Leading Note is so called from its leading naturally to the
Tonic, and is the sharp seventh of the scale, and therefore in the
Minor mode is necessarily sharped in ascending.
There are also fourteen intervals in the scale bearing distinct
names ; viz. Unison, Minor second, Major second, Minor third, Major
third, perfect fourth, sharp fourth, flat fifth, perfect fifth, Minor sixth,
Major sixth, Minor seventh, Major seventh, Octave.
, ® -©- ©- -©-
Unison. Minor second. Major second. Minor third. Major third. Perfect fourth. Sharp fourth. Flat fifth. Perfect fifth. Minor sixth. Major sixth. Minor seventh. Major seventh. Octave.
As the scale admits of only 12 semitones, so an Octave although by
counting the first and last note, which are octaves to each other, and
really one and the same sound in effect, it contains 13 sounds, yet it
has but 12 intervals; because the Unison cannot properly be called
an interval, and the sharp fourth and flat fifth, although necessarily
distinguished in harmony, are performed on keyed instruments with
the same keys, and make but one interval.
When any one of these intervals is subtracted from 9, or when the
lower note is placed an Octave higher, or the upper one an Octave
lower, its inversion will be produced Thus unison or one subtracted
from 9 leaves 8, its inversion ; a second from 9, leaves 7, its inversion;
a third, from 9, leaves a 6th, its inversion ; and so on. Also place
the unison an Octave higher and it will be an 8th— place the lower
note of the second an Octave higher, and it will be a seventh, or plaGe
the upper note an Octave lower, and it will be a 7fh, and so on.
There are other intervals produced by sharps or flats, or both,
which are called extremes, namely, the extreme or chromatic semi-
tone, the extreme sharp 2d, the extreme flat 3d, the extreme flat 4th, the
extreme sharp 5th, the extreme sharp 6th, the extreme flat 7th, and the
extreme flat 8th. — These all arise from the five additional intervals
made by the semitonic division of the scale. These are principally
theoretic distinctions, as on keyed instruments the extreme sharp
second, is the same as the minor third ; and the extreme flat third, the
same as a tone, containing only two degrees, and the most of the rest-
correspond to other nafia-al interval*.
There are three kinds of time, viz. Common, Triple, and Com-
COMMON TIME has four characters.
First. Second. Third. Fourth.
The first is the slowest, containing four crotchets in a bar. It has
four beats, two down, and two up ; and is performed in four seconds.
The second is beat as the first, but one fourth faster. 9
The third has two beats in a bar, one down and one up, and is
performed in two seconds.
The fourth is beat as the third, but performed one fourth faster,
(t^- In all, the accent falls on the first and third parts of the bar.
TRIPLE TIME has three characters.
First. Second. Third.
=1= iim eIIee
The first has three minims in a bar, each minim sounded in a
second of time ; and is performed with three beats to a bar, the two
first with the hand down, and the last with it up.
The second has three crotchets in a bar ; the time measured as in
the first, hut performed one fourth faster.
The third has three quavers in the bar; the time measured as in
the other*, but performed one fourth faster than the second, (r^r In
Triple Time, the accent fall* principally on the first, and faintly on
the third part of the bnr
COMPOUND TIME has two characters.
The first contains six crotchets in a bar ; three sung with the hand
down, and three with it up, in the time of two seconds. It is accented
on the first part of the bar.
The second has six quavers in a bar ; performed like the first, but
one fourth faster, and accented in the same manner. .
Where figures are employed as characters to express the Time,
they are to be understood as denoting the fractional parts of a semi-
breve that are contained in each bar ; as three halves, is three minims ;
three fourths, is three crotchets ; three eighths, is three quavers ; six
fourths, is six crotchets ; six eighths, is six quavers, the upper figure
denoting the number, and the lower one the kind, of notes, which are
necessary to fill the bar. Other similar characters, as f , f , VS V s i
are sometimes used ; but generally in instrumental music.
The proportions here given to the different species of time are
not to be found in many of the best European treatises ; but are such
as have been generally observed in this country, and are well enough
for general regulations. But all the species in each kind of time
are really the same, and may, aid ought to be, performed, slower or
faster, according to the sentiment to be expressed.
THE early Christians Lad a propensity to singing Psalms, Hymns,
and Spiritual Songs, as the New Testament teaches us; and Lucien,
and Pliny the youtiger, hear their testimony to the same fact It
does not appear, however, what their music was. They were pro-
bably compelled to adopt the music of the times, and perhaps pagan
hymns. Origen said, • we sing hymns to none but the Supreme
Being, and to his only Son, in the same manner as the pagans sing
to the sun, moon, stars, and all the heavenly hosts." Christianity
became the established religion in the year 312, and in the time of
Const, uaine. chants were first established. That of Ambrose, called
the Ambrotian chant, was first introduced, by which the Psalms were
chanted after the Eastern mr.nner, till about the year GOO, when St.
Gregory reformed it, and established, what was afterwards called
the Gregorian chant. This plain chant, or canto fermo, adapted to
prose only, was distinguished from the canto fgurato, or florid song,
to which verse and rhymes were sung, and which was banished from
the church, as being too lively and paganish : hence Psalmody de-
generated into plain monotonous song, or chant. This was a single
part, in which most of the notes were on one and the same line or
degree, in which all the voices united ; but in time, dwphonia, orga-
num, Jucant. counterpoint, or faburden, (all which terms mean the
same thing, namely, music in parts, or harmony, in contradistinction
to plain chant, or single melody,) began to take place. This at first
was only singing the plain song a fifth, fourth, or eighth higher or
lower. At length they began to vary some of the tones from con-
stant coasecutive fourths, fifths, or eighths, to some other concordant
tone, as to a third or sixth. Thus they proceeded from one step to
another, till at length they built all kinds of Jlorid counterpoint, or
harmony on these plain songs or chants. These additional parts
were at first extemporaneous, and not written ; but finally written
counterpoint or harmony took place, and gave rise to all the arts of
cwnon, fugue, imitation, inversion, augmentation and diminution. But
while the artists and professors were exercising their skill on these
different superadded parts in florid counterpoint, the congregation
were singing only the plain chant and well known song. This hold-
ing on in the plain song, is what has given the name of Tenor to the
principal melody ; which, in modern times, however, is generally
called the Treble. The mode of performance was generally by way
of question and answer, by different choirs, or different parts of the
same choir. This mode of singing, together with such licentious
accompaniments, it is easily conceived, would almost totally obscure
the plain tune or melody, and lead to the greatest confusion. And
hence we are told that it gave great offence to the first reformers.
They admitted u the people to join with one voice in a plain tune,"
but nothing more. In 1586, the} r prayed Parliament, " that all cathed-
ral churches might be put down, where the service of God was grievously
abused by singing, ringing, and t fowling of Psalms from one side of the
clioir to the other?'' This reproof would but too well apply to the
" light, fi-guing, and ballad-like" kind of music, which has heretofore
overrun our country, but is now giving way to a better taste, and a
more sober and devotional kind of psalmody.
Metrical or Parochial Psalmody in slow notes of equal length had
its origin in Germany, and was thence spread by reformers into other
parts of Europe. Clement Marot, in France, translated 30 of the
Psalms in 1540, into French verse, which were sung to the tunes of
the most favorite songs of the times. He soon after fled from perse-
cution to Geneva, where he versified 20 more. The whole 50 were
printed at Geneva in 1513, with a preface by Calvin himself. Marot
dying the next year, Theodore Beza versified the rest, and the whole
150 were published at Strasburgh ia 1545 with single melodies, which
are still extant, and in possession of the compilers of this work.
These Tunes or melodies, were said to be composed by one William
Franc. In all these there are but three tunes, which are now used,,
namely, Old Hundred, Old 50th, or Landuff, and the 40tu Psalm, in
this collection. It is upon these single melodies, that most of the able
harmonists have laboured in constructing parts. Claude Le Jeune
first harmonized Old 100, which is here inserted, page 267. These
Psalms of Marot and Beza began afterwards in 1549, to be translated
into English Metre, when Thomas Sternhold's 51 Psalms were pub-
lished. The entire version by Sternhold and Hopkins, and others,
was not published, however, till 1562, with the simple melodies in
one part only, which are chiefly German Tunes. These were again
published in 1594, and fully harmonized in four parts, by John Dow-
land, E. Blanks, E. Hooper, J. Farmer, R. Allison, G. Kirby, W. Cob-
bold, E. Johnson, and G. Farnaby. But the most complete publica-
tion of Psalm Tunes in four parts, which perhaps ever appeared in
England, was that of Thomas Ravenscroft. now in the possession of
the compilers, in small octavo, in 1621, containing a melody for each
of the Psalms, many of them by the editor himself. Many of these
melodies are still in use. The three added parts were composed by
21 English musicians, among whom were Tullis, Dowland, Morley,
Bennet, Stubbs, Farnaby, and John Milton, father of the Poet. Dr.
Dowland harmonized Old 100, but Ravenscroft ranks the melody
among the old French tunes. This publication informs u8 who com-
posed the parts to old melodies, and who added new ones, and is
therefore in some measure historical. A great number of other
smaller publications were made, but all becoming scarce, honest John
Playford, about 1560, furnished the lovers of Psalmody with the whole
book of Psalms and Hymns in three parts, which being printed in a
pocket volume, at a very reasonable price, encouraged and excited a
passion for this species of music, throughout Great Britain, equal to
that of the Calvinists and other Protestants on the continent. This
publication was used nearly 100 year3 without any alteration; the
only two tunes introduced into general use during that time, being St.
Michael's and Easter Hymn, and these perhaps by a kind of necessity
on account of their peculiar metres. These old Tunes have since,
many of them at least, been a thousand times published in England
and this country, and almost as often varied in some particulars, as it
respects harmony or the number of parts. The complaints, there-
fore, which are often made of the alteration of the old Tunes, are un-
founded, and only expose the ignorance of those who make them. No-
one can say, which is the original. Probably the oldest Tunes now
in use, like Old 100, were originally composed without parts, and
have been harmonized many different ways, as that of Old 100 by
Claude Le Jeune will show. When the English books containing
these Tunes were first brought to this Country, as Tansur, Williams,
Knapp, J. Arnold, &c. who were by no means, musicians of the first
class in England, they were evidently, set or harmonized, as Tansur
professes, in the most simple manner ; containing principally the com-
mon chords, without any regard to the modern rule* of relation and
progression. If any complaint, therefore, of the alteration of these
old tunes is well founded, it lies as well against these authors, from
whom we first learnt them in this country, as against those, who are
endeavouring to render them conformable to the modern rules of
harmony. — Late English publications present them with very different
harmony from the former ones, and different from each other. Many
of them, however, are still retained in this publication with the same
dress and accompaniment in which they have been most accustomed'
to be seen in this country; and although not strictly agreeable, in.
many instances to the present rules of counterpoint, yet, having be-
come familiar to us, more injury than benefit would probably result
from any supposed alterations of them whatever. Plain common
chords were exclusively used in ancient church music, and applied,
without regard to connexion, to six of the seven different notes in the
scale; and it is doubtful if it has gained much by the modern doctrine
of relation. Palestrina in his famous stabct mater, as well as other
celebrated authors, used perfect chords of the s;;me kind diatonicallv,
and every note in the scale except the 7th, as a fundamental base,
And Dr. Barney, from whom most of this account is derived, says.
u the modulation was so qualified by the disposition of the parts, that
though it looked unscientific and licentious on paper, its effects, of
■xkick no idea can be acquired from keyed instruments, were admirable.'*
He further savs, that u this disregard of relation, is doubtless the true
secret of ancient church music, and the principal cause of its effects so
widely different from that of modern compositions : an effect, com-
pounded of solemnity. wildness. and melancholy.*'
If those, who complain of the alterations of the old Tunes, will take
the trouble to examine the latent English Collections of Psalmody,
thev will find many of their favorite old Tunes, as St. Martin's. Col-
chester, .ill Saints, and others, so much changed, not merely in harmo-
ny, but sometimes in the melodies themselves, that they will scarcely
be able to recognize them. The compilers of this work have not. for
reasons already mentioned, adopted these alterations but in a few
instance-: and those, where the change was not great, and where
the good effects were believed to be important.
In the following work, the air or principal melody is universally
placed next above the Base, to accommodate those who perform on
organs, or other keyed instruments. The natural order is to place
the air or Treble at the top. and the other parts in order downwards,
as Counter. Tenor an! Ra^. It has however for a long time been
cu«toroary to place the parts as we have here arranged them, and is
perlnpi the most convenient, for the reasons above mentioned. —
Females should, however, generally sing the air or principal melody,
otherwise the harmony will often be destroyed, or at least it will not
have its intended and proper effect Singers should also be informed,
that where a piece is set for one, two or three voices, and contains
such directions, only the number of voices prescribed should be em-
ployed in the performance. Such directions are generally misunder-
stood, and instead of one person only on each part, all the singers on
the parts mentioned unite, which is altogether wrong in practice, and
should be corrected. When three voices, for instance, are directed
to perform a piece, three persons are intended, and not three parts ;
one person only on each part is meant. After such directions, they
will generally find the word Tutti, or Chorus, used, which indicates
that the whole choir is again to unite. And generally where Tutti,
or Chorus occurs, it is understood that the previous strain should be
performed by one voice on each part, whether such directions are
expressly given or not This rule, however, is not absolute, but is
generally proper, and in some instances essential.
The Compilers have thought it unnecessary to enlarge on the Ru-
diments of Music in a school-book like the present, as a master will
be able to supply all that is wanting, and even more than could be
well inserted in a collection of music for general use. It is hoped the
additional rules in this edition will be found amply sufficient for begin-
ners. Those who wish to perfect themselves in the rules of music,
must not expect to find sufficient instruction in a mere collection of
music for public worship, but must have recourse to grammars, and
other professed works of instruction.
ARLINGTON. C. M. Dr. Arne.
ARUNDEL. C. M.
Bleat is l!.e man who shuns the place, Where sinners love to rrect, Who fears to tread their tricked \va\s, And hales ihe sc ffer's seat.
6 6 5 6
V. / do we mourn departing friends, Or shake at death's alarms i 'Tis but the voice that Jesus s-.mls, To call them to his arms.
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20 DURHAM. C. M. H. PurceU.
•■ who's the happy man that mav, i'o ^ thy blesi courts repair, And while he bows before thy throne, Shall find acceptance ^there"
CHAPEL. C. M.
BROOMSGJIOVE. C. M.
God, I cry with ev'ry breath, For some kind power to save, To break the yoke of sin and death. And thus redeem the slave.
6 7 *
# 7 5 6 6 •#•
6 7 #
let our lips, with holy fear, And mournful pleasure, sing The sufferings of otir great High Priest, The sorrows of our King.
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6 # 6
30 St. MATTHEW'S. C. M. Dr. Croft.
Let Leaven arise. Let e^rth appear, Said the Almighty Lord, The heavens arose, the earth appeal 'd, At his creating word.
Thick darkness brooded o'er the deep; God said, let there be light; The light shone round with smiling rav, And scatter' d ancient night.
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BUCKINGHAM. C. M. 35
FLORENCE. C. M.
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How long shall deaih the tyrant reign, And triumph o'er the just, While the rich biood of martyrs slain Lies mingled, Lies mingled with the dust.
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Lo faith beholds the scatter'd shades, The dawn of heaven appears, And the bright morning gently spreads Its blushes, Its blushes, Its blushes round the spheres.
5 6 5 7-5
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CAROLINA. C. M. Coombs. 4»
2 4 43 3* 45 4* 4 4*
ROCHESTER. C. M.
I know thai mv Kedeemer lives. And ever pravs for me ; Salvation to liis saints he gives, And life and lib - er - tv.
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The dear delights we he-re cn - joy. And call our own in vain, Are but short favours borrow'd now, To be repaid again.
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Arise, O King of grace, arise, And enter to thy rest ; Lo ! thy church waits with longing eyes, Thus to he own'd and blest.
6 5 6
BURFOKD. C. M.
How shall the young secure their hearts, And guard their lives from sin ; Thy word the choicest rules imparts, To keep the conscience clean.
* 6 # * •#• 6 # 6 6 # # 6 6 6 5
53 PEMBROKE. C. M. Dalmer.
PENUOSE. C. M. . Tucker. 55
Thee we adore, Eternal Name, And humbly own to thee, How feeble is our mortal frame, What dying worms are we.
KNARESBOROUGH. C. M.
Hark ! how the feather'd warblers sing, 'Tis nature's cheerful voice, 'Tis nature's cheerful voice, Soft music hails the lovely
6 I I
Soft music hails the lovely spring, And wOods and fields re - joice.
spring, And woods and fields rejoice.
music hails the lovely spring, 5 6 6 *6 6 6 6 , £
Now to thy heavenly Father's praise, My heart, thy tribute bring"; That goodness which prolongs my days, With grateful pleasure sing.
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CHRISTMAS. C. M.
Awake, my soul, stretch every nerve, And press with \igour~on ; " A heavenly race demands th'y zeal, And an immortal crown. "^A.nd an immortal crown.
6 7 —
& 5 6 5 65 66 67
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CONCORD. C. M.
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O God, my Father,
a - (lore That all com - mand - mg name : It will my soul to
J r r i frr T fl r i»i ^
store, And kindle all my
— _ — » — t J — e
flame. And kin
all my flame.
6 6 5 6 6 .6 7 Voice. 6 5
M. P. King.
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As pants the hait for cooling streams, When heated in the chase, So longs my soul, O God, for thee, And thy re - fresh-ing grace.
.5 6 5
6 7 |*
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t^UEEN BO ROUGH. C. M.
Thro' all the changing scenes of life, In trouble and in joy; The praises of my God shall still My heart and tongue employ.
"fi ' G 6 C 6 1> 6 57
TISBURY. C. M. Husband. 65
There is a land of pure delight, Where saints im - mor-tal reign ; In - fi - nite day ex - eludes the night, In-
68 STADE. C. M. Burney.
With pity - ing eyes, the Prince of grace ' Beheld our helpless grief : He saw, and (O a • maz-ing love !)
He came to our re - lief. Halle - lujati, Halle ■ lujah, Halle - lujah, A - men.
ANNIVERSARY. C. M.
Father, how wide thy glories shine, How high thy wonders rise ! Known thro' the earth by thousand signs, By thousands thro' the skies. By thousands, thousands —
66 665665 67
4 4 4 3 4 5
6 6 5 6 6 6 5
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3 6 6 7
He is a God of sovereign love, That promis'd heav'n to me, And taught my soul to soar above, Where happy, where happy, where happy spirits be.
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70 ARNOLD'S. C. M.
CHARMOUTH. C. M.
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PORTSEA. C. M.
God of our "mercy and our praise, Thy glory ^ is our song ; We'll speak the hone
God of our mercy and our praise, Thy glory is our song ; We'll speak the honours of thy grace, With a re - joic - ing tongue.
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PALMYRA. C. M.
That once lov'd form, now cold and dead, Each mournful thought employs, And nature weeps, her comforts dead, And wither'd all her joys.
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When God reveal'd his gracious name, Andchang'd my mournful state, My rapture seem'd a pleasing dream, The grace appear'd so great. The grace, &c.
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BABYLON. L. M.
Now let our mournful songs record The dying sorrows of our Lord, When he complain'd in tears and blood, As one forsaken of his God.
6 I 3 5
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78 OLD HUNDRED. L. M.
Come bitlier, all ye weary souls, Ye heavy laden sinners, come ; I'll give you rest from all your toils, And raise you to my heavenly home.
SURRY. L. M.
No more fa. - tigue, no more dis - tress, Nor sin nor death shall reacli the place, No groans shall mingle with the songs,
6 6 6
mor - tal tongues. Which war - blc from im
mor - tal tongues.
tes 1 raise, Approve the song, and join the praise.
Willi all my powers of heart and tongue, I'll praise my Maker in my song : Angels shall hear the notes 1 raise, Approve the song, and join the praise.
4 5 43 * 4 3
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Life is the time to serve the Lord, The time t'insure the great reward ; And while the lamp holds out to burn, The vilest sinner may re • turn.
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CARTHAGE. L. M.
Father of all, omniscient Mind, Thy wisdom who can comprehend ?
Its highest point what eye can find, Or to its
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Its highest point, what eye can find, Or to its lowest
depths descend !
SPRING. L. M. Dalmer. 89
infant year From wint'ry storms recovei'd rise, When thousand grateful scenes appear, When thousand, &c. Fresh op'ningto our wond'ling eyes.
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PORTUGAL. L. M.
O could I
soar to worlds a
The blest a
bode of peace and love,
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wings to joys on high.
MAGDALEN. L. M. Tallis. 97
ANTWORTH. L. M.
No bleeding bird, nor bleeding beast, Nor hyssop branch, nor sprinkling priest, Nor running brook, nor flood nor sea, Can wash the dismal stain away.
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Incumbent on the bending sky, The Lord descended from on high, And bade the darkness of the pole, Ueneath his feet tremendous roll.
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10* PALEY. L. M.
Shepherd, let me know, Where do thy sweetest pastures grow. Where do thy sweetest pastures grow.
P1LESGR0VB. L. M. 105
St. GEORGE. L. M.
God of my life, through alt its days, My grateful tongue shall sound thy praise, The song shall wake with ^awning light, And warble to the silent night.
6 6 6 #6
6 #6 6 66 ^
6 6 5 6 6 65
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ROTHWELL. L. M.
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Blest be the Father and his love, To whose celestial source we owe Rivers of endless joys above, And rills of comfort, And rills of comfort here below.
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DUN STAN. L. M.
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Awake, my soul, to Iiymns of praise, To God the song of triumph raise ; Adorn'd with majes-
ty di - vine, What pomp, what
glory, Lord, are thine ! "What pomp, what g'-ory, Lord, are thine !
TRURO. L. M.
Now to the Lord, a noble song, Awake, my soul, awake, my tongue, Hosanna to th'Eter - nal Name, And all his boundless love proclaim.
6 -5- 6
6 tj 6 57 65
6 6 7 6 7
QUERCY. L. M.
With all my pow'rs of heart and tongue, I'll praise my Maker in my song, Angels shall hear the notes I raise, Approve t
CrREEN'S HUNDREDTH. L. M.
^ q ^ ^ zj ' — j — j j^
Sweet is the work, my God, my King, To praise thy name, give thanks and sing, To show thy love by morning light, And talk of all thy truth at night.
KIRKE. L. M.
6 6 5
O Lord my God, in mercy turn, In mercy hear a sinner mourn : To thee 1 call, to thee I cry, O leave me, leave me not to die
* 6**6* 7*
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Sing to the Lord, who loud proclaims His various and his saving names i " O m^y they not be heard aio^e," But by our suie experience known.
Darknes and clouds ot awful shade His dazzling glory shroud in state, Justice and truth his guards are made, And fix'd by his pavilion, wait.
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WELLS ROW. L. M.
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bless thee all my
Thy praise shall dwell up
6 6 6 6 ^ 6 5 -5-
to hear the song.
My soul shall
in thy grace,
And saints re
6 5 65 6 6
CHINA. L. M.
O what a - mazing joys they feel, While to their golden harps they sing, And sit on
ev' - ry
6 6 6 5
heav'n • ly hill, And sit on ev' - ry beav'nly hill, And sing the triumphs of their King.
GERMAN. L. M.
How transient is the life of man
At most, a brief con - tract - ed span ;
6 7 6
1 1 r
It blooms, it fades, and serves to show, How vain, bow frail, «re things be - low.
5 6 6 4
5 6 —
6 6 ^6 ^ 6